Dad’s diet at conception blamed for kid’s poor health
There may be a biological link between paternal diet, body weight and health at the time of conception and the health of his offspring, according to new research from the University of New South Wales (UNSW).
The study, published in the January 2014 edition of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Journal, showed that if male rats ate a high fat diet, had diabetes and were obese, their offspring had altered gene expression in two important metabolic tissues — pancreas and fat — even though they were not yet obese. This altered gene expression may increase the risk of future obesity and premature ageing. Other genes that were affected include markers of premature ageing, cancer, and chronic degenerative disease.
“While scientists have focused on how the maternal diet affects children’s health, this study is part of exciting new research exploring the impact of paternal diet on offspring risk of obesity,” said Margaret Morris, PhD, a researcher involved in the work from the Pharmacology School of Medical Sciences at UNSW.
“The fact that similar gene markers were affected in pancreas and fat tissue tells us that some of the same pathways are being influenced, possibly from the earliest stages of life,” Dr Morris said. “It will be important to follow up these findings, and to learn more about when and how to intervene to reduce the impact of poor paternal metabolic health on offspring,” she said.
To make this discovery, Dr Morris and colleagues used two groups of male rats, one of which was obese and diabetic and fed a high-fat diet, and another that was lean and healthy and fed a normal diet. The two groups of males were mated with lean female rats, and researchers examined their female offspring.
Those who were born from obese fathers on a high-fat diet showed a poor ability to respond to a glucose challenge, even while consuming a healthy diet. Specifically, the offspring of the obese rats showed gene expression changes in pancreatic islets, which are responsible for producing insulin to control blood glucose and the fat tissue of their female offspring.
“For a long time, we’ve known that the nutrition and health status of women who are pregnant or who want to get pregnant is critical to the health of her offspring, and we’ve also suspected that the same is true for fathers to a lesser degree,” said Gerald Weissmann, MD, Editor-in-Chief of The FASEB Journal. “This report is the first step in understanding exactly how the nutrition and health of fathers affects his children, for better or worse,” he said.